Introduction & Vocabulary
What we need to know:
So what is the difference between Anatomy and Physiology?
Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
We can break anatomy down into a couple of subsections:
Gross or macroscopic - this is what we can see. This anatomy describes big parts of organisms. Gross anatomy describes big parts of an organism, like an arm or a finger.
Microscopic - this is much more structural anatomy in that it describes the detail parts of what makes up an organism. Microscopic anatomy is concerned with the parts of your muscles that you can't see without a microscope.
Developmental - this is the anatoms of an organism that is still developing, or more specifically, an embryo.
Physiology is the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery. It defined how our parts work.
Let's start with the basics.
We need to know what we will be learning this year.
Every topic has a specific vocabulary that goes along
with it. Knowing that vocabulary is critical for us to
understand the topic - for instance, I am confused
when my friends speak about Cricket (a sport
plaed in many former British colonies). I know what
words my friends are saying, but I have no idea what
these words mean. I need to learn the vocabulary to
become involved in a conersation. The same is true for
Anatomy and Physiology.
We need to understand what the special vocabulary is so we can understand each other. This vocabulary is mostly descriptive, and can be a little confusing at first, but you wil become fluent (or be confused the rest of the school year).
You don't have a choice, so just memorize the vocabulary words you need, and use them in class.
We have learned that Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. We also know that cells are the basic unit of structure and function for all living things. Let's take a quick review of the structural complexity of an organism:
Atom – Molecule – Macromolecule – Organelle – Cell – Tissue – Organ – Organ System – Organism
Levels of Structural Organization:
Atom the basic unit for all matter; this is before there is any prganization.
Molecule atoms combined to form molecules; this is chemical organization.
Macromolecule Large molecules that are essential to life. Many of these macromolecules are polymers.
Organelle structures inside the cell that perform specific functions for the cell.
Cell cells are made of organelles contained in a membrane. Organelles are, in turn, made up of molecules.
Tissue a grouping of similar types of cells that perform similar or complementary functions
Organ a grouping of different types of tissues to perfrom a specific function
Organ system consists of different organs that work closely together
Organism a living being made up of organ systems.
What are the Organ Systems?
There are 11 organ systems:
Sometimes the skeletal and muscular systems are combined into the musculoskeletal system
Let's not forget Homeostasis (We learned about this in 7 & 11 grade biology)
Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world
The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium
Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis
All organisms have the same Basic Survival Needs:
Stable body environment (this is Homeostasis)
H2O (water) concentration